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Lees’ Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 4th Edition: Hazard Identification, Assessment and Control

Safety in the process industries is critical for those who work with chemicals and hazardous substances or processes. The field of loss prevention is, and continues to be, of supreme importance to countless companies, municipalities and governments around the world, and Lees’ Loss Prevention is a detailed reference to defending against hazards. Recognized as the standard work for chemical and process engineering safety professionals, it provides the most complete collection of information on the theory, practice, design elements, equipment, regulations and laws covering the field of process safety.


An entire library of alternative books (and cross-referencing systems) would be needed to replace or improve upon Lees’ Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, but everything of importance to safety professionals, engineers and managers can be found in this all-encompassing three-volume reference instead.

Key Features

  • The process safety encyclopedia, trusted worldwide for over 30 years
  • Now available in print and online, to aid searchability and portability
  • 3,776 print pages cover the full scope of process safety and loss prevention, compiling theory, practice, standards, legislation, case studies and lessons learned in one resource as opposed to multiple sources


Safety and loss prevention professionals; process and plant engineers; environmental and chemical safety professionals; in all chemical, petroleum and process industry sectors.


Frank Lees, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Loughborough, UK



ispersion: Models

15.17 Passive Dispersion: Dispersion over Particular Surfaces

15.18 Passive Dispersion: Dispersion in Particular Conditions

15.19 Passive Dispersion: Dispersion Parameters

15.20 Dispersion of Jets and Plumes

15.21 Dispersion of Two-phase Flashing Jets

15.22 Dense Gas Dispersion

15.23 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Source Terms

15.24 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Models and Modeling

15.25 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Modified Conventional Models

15.26 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Van Ulden Model

15.27 Dispersion of Dense Gas: British Gas/Cremer and Warner Model

15.28 Dispersion of Dense Gas: DENZ and CRUNCH

15.29 Dispersion of Dense Gas: SIGMET

15.30 Dispersion of Dense Gas: SLAB and FEM3

15.31 Dispersion of Dense Gas: HEGADAS and Related Models

15.32 Dispersion of Dense Gas: DEGADIS

15.33 Dispersion of Dense Gas: SLUMP and HEAVYGAS

15.34 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Workbook Model

15.35 Dispersion of Dense Gas: DRIFT and Related Models

15.36 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Some Other Models and Reviews

15.37 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Field Trials

15.38 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Thorney Island Trials

15.39 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Physical Modeling

15.40 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Terrain, Obstructions, and Buildings

15.41 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Validation and Comparison

15.42 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Particular Gases

15.43 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Plumes from Elevated Sources

15.44 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Plumes from Elevated Sources – PLUME

15.45 Concentration and Concentration Fluctuations

15.46 Flammable Gas Clouds

15.47 Toxic Gas Clouds

15.48 Dispersion over Short Distances

15.49 Hazard Ranges for Dispersion

15.50 Transformation and Removal Processes

15.51 Infiltration into Buildings

15.52 Source and Dispersion Modeling: CCPS Guidelines

15.53 Vapor Release Mitigation: Containment and Barriers

15.54 Vapor Cloud Mitigation: CCPS Guidelines

15.55 Fugitive Emissions

15.56 Leaks and Spillages

15.57 Classification of Models

15.58 Notation

Chapter 16. Fire

16.1 Fire

16.2 Flammability of Gases and Vapors

16.3 Combustion Phenomena

16.4 Flammability of Aerosols

16.5 Ignition Sources

16.6 Self-Heating

16.7 Static Electricity

16.8 Electrical Equipment

16.9 Hazardous Area Classification

16.10 Ignition Models

16.11 Fire in Process Plant

16.12 Flames

16.13 Radiant Heat Transfer

16.14 Vapor Cloud Fires

16.15 Fireballs

16.16 Fireballs from Explosives

16.17 Pool Fires

16.18 Flares

16.19 Jet Flames

16.20 Engulfing Fires

16.21 Effects of Fire: Damage

16.22 Effects of Fire: Injury

16.23 Fire Protection of Process Plant

16.24 Passive Fire Protection

16.25 Fire Fighting Agents

16.26 Fire Protection Using Water: Extinguishment and Control

16.27 Fire Protection Using Water: Exposure Protection

16.28 Fire Protection Using Foam

16.29 Fire Protection Using Dry Chemicals

16.30 Fire Protection Using Vaporizing Liquids

16.31 Fire Protection Using Inert Gas

16.32 Fire Protection Using Special Methods

16.33 Fire Protection Using Portable Extinguishers

16.34 Fire Protection Applications

16.35 Firefighting in Process Plant

16.36 Fire and Fire Protection in Buildings

16.37 Fire Protection in Transport

16.38 Fire Hazard

16.39 Hazard Range of Fire

16.40 Notation

Volume 2

Chapter 17. Explosion

17.1 Explosion

17.2 Detonation

17.3 Explosives

17.4 Explosion Energy

17.5 Deflagration Inside Plant

17.6 Detonation Inside Vessels and Pipes

17.7 Explosions in Closed Vessels

17.8 Explosions in Buildings

17.9 Explosions in Large Enclosures

17.10 Explosion Prevention

17.11 Explosion Protection

17.12 Explosion Venting of Vessels

17.13 Explosion Venting of Ducts and Pipes

17.14 Explosion Relief of Buildings

17.15 Explosion Relief of Large Enclosures

17.16 Venting of Reactors

17.17 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: DIERS

17.18 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: Vent Flow

17.19 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: Vent Sizing

17.20 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: Leung Model

17.21 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: ICI Scheme

17.22 Venting of Reactors: Relief Disposal

17.23 Venting of Reactors: CCPS Work

17.24 Venting of Storage Vessels

17.25 Explosive Shock in Air

17.26 Condensed Phase Explosions

17.27 Vessel Burst Explosions

17.28 Vapor Cloud Explosions

17.29 Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosions

17.30 Explosions in Process Plant

17.31 Effects of Explosions

17.32 Explosion Damage to Structures

17.33 Explosion Damage to Housing

17.34 Explosion Damage by Missiles

17.35 Explosion Damage to Plant by Missiles

17.36 Explosion of a Cased Explosive

17.37 Explosion of an Explosive Load

17.38 Explosion Injury to Persons Outdoors

17.39 Explosion Injury to Persons Indoors

17.40 Explosion Injury from Flying Glass

17.41 Explosion Injury from Penetrating Fragments

17.42 Explosion Injury from Penetrating Fragments: Model of Gilbert, Lees, and Scilly

17.43 Dust Explosions

17.44 Dust Explosibility Characteristics

17.45 Dust Ignition Sources

17.46 Dust Explosion Prevention

17.47 Dust Explosion Protection

17.48 Dust Explosion Venting

17.49 Dust-Handling Plants

17.50 Dust Fires

17.51 Explosion Hazard

17.52 Hazard Range of Explosions

17.53 Notation

Chapter 18. Toxic Release

18.1 Toxic Effects

18.2 Toxic Substances

18.3 Toxicity Assessment

18.4 Control of Toxic Hazard: Regulatory Controls

18.5 Hygiene Standards

18.6 Hygiene Standards: Occupational Exposure Limits

18.7 Carcinogens

18.8 Dusts

18.9 Metals

18.10 Emergency Exposure Limits

18.11 Gas Toxicity

18.12 Gas Toxicity: Experimental Determination

18.13 Gas Toxicity: Physiological Factors

18.14 Gas Toxicity: Toxicity Data

18.15 Gas Toxicity: Vulnerability Model

18.16 Gas Toxicity: Major Industrial Gases

18.17 Gas Toxicity: MHAP Studies

18.18 Gas Toxicity: Chlorine

18.19 Gas Toxicity: Green Book Relations

18.20 Gas Toxicity: Probit Equations

18.21 Gas Toxicity: HSE Dangerous Dose

18.22 Gas Toxicity: Combustion Gases

18.23 Ultratoxic Substances

18.24 Plant Design for Toxic Substances

18.25 Toxic Gas Detection

18.26 Toxic Release Response

18.27 Toxic Release Case Histories

18.28 Toxic Release Risk

18.29 Chlorine Hazard Assessment

18.30 Other Chemicals Hazard Assessment

18.31 Hazard Assessment Methodology

18.32 Notation

Chapter 19. Plant Commissioning and Inspection

19.1 Plant Commissioning

19.2 Plant Inspection

19.3 Pressure Vessel Inspection

19.4 Pressure Piping Systems Inspection

19.5 Non-Destructive Testing

19.6 Materials Verification

19.7 Pressure Testing

19.8 Leak Testing and Detection

19.9 Plant Monitoring

19.10 Performance Monitoring

19.11 Condition Monitoring

19.12 Vibration Monitoring

19.13 Corrosion Monitoring

19.14 Acoustic Emission Monitoring

19.15 Plant Monitoring: Specific Equipment

19.16 Pipeline Inspection and Monitoring

19.17 Notation

Chapter 20. Plant Operation

20.1 Inherently Safer Design to Prevent or Minimize Operator Errors

20.2 Operating Discipline

20.3 Good Operating Practices

20.4 Operating Procedures and Instructions

20.5 Emergency Procedures

20.6 Handover and Permit Systems

20.7 Operator Training

20.8 Plant Patrols

20.9 Modifications to the Process

20.10 Operation and Maintenance

20.11 Start-up and Shut-Down

20.12 Start-up of Refinery Units

20.13 Shut-down of Refinery Units

20.14 Operation of Fired Heaters

20.15 Operation of Driers

20.16 Operation of Storage

20.17 Operational Activities and Hazards

20.18 Sampling

20.19 Trip Systems

20.20 Identification Measures

20.21 Exposure of Personnel

20.22 Security

20.23 Notation

tional Emphasis Program

Appendix 32: Risk Management Program Regulation in the United States

A32.1 The Risk Management Program

Appendix 33: Incident Databases

A33.1 Incident Databases

A33.2 Injury and Fatality Databases (Not Tied to Specific Incidents)

A33.3 Incident Investigation Reports

Appendix 34: Web Links

A34.1 General Information

A34.2 Technical Information

A34.3 University Academic Programs

A34.4 Government Organizations

A34.5 Societies, Councils, Institutes

A34.6 Security and Vulnerability Assessment

Appendix 35: Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

A35.1 Introduction

A35.2 Hurricane Katrina

A35.3 Hurricane Rita

A35.4 Effect on the Industry

A35.5 Lessons Learned

A35.6 Recommendations

Appendix 36: BP America Refinery Explosion, Texas City, Texas, USA

A36.1 Introduction

A36.2 Overview of BP Management Framework and Organizational Structure

A36.3 Incident Description

A36.4 Root and Contributing Causes

A36.5 Recommendations

Appendix 37: Buncefield Incident

A37.1 Description of the Incident

A37.2 Causes of the Incident

A37.3 Lessons Learned from the Incident

A37.4 Regulations and Standards in the Industry after the Incident

Appendix 38: Space Shuttle Columbia Disaster

A38.1 Development of the Space Shuttle Program

A38.2 Columbia’s Final Flight

A38.3 Accident Analysis

A38.4 Other Factors Considered

A38.5 From Challenger to Columbia

A38.6 Decision Making at NASA

A38.7 The Accident’s Organizational Causes

A38.8 History as Cause: Columbia and Challenger

A38.9 Implications for the Future of Human Space Flight

A38.10 Other Significant Observations

A38.11 Recommendations

Appendix 39: Tank Farm Incidents

A39.1 Tank Farms

A39.2 Hazards in Tank Farms

A39.3 Prevention of Tank Farm Incidents

A39.4 Related Regulations about Tanks and Tank Farms

A39.5 Tank Farm Incidents

A39.6 Incident Statistics

A39.7 Case Study Material and Examples

A39.8 Tank Farm Spacing Study: Optimization Model

A39.9 Optimization Model Formulations

A39.10 Modeling Case Study

A39.11 Conclusions

Appendix 40: Deepwater Horizon

A40.1 Lessons from the Deepwater Horizon Incident

A40.2 The Companies and the Management

A40.3 The Site and the Works

A40.4 Deepwater Horizon and Drilling Operations

A40.5 Events Prior to the Explosions

A40.6 The Emergency and Evacuation

A40.7 Containment

A40.8 The Investigations

A40.9 Impact

Appendix 41: Safety Characteristics Database CHEMSAFE®

A41.1 Introduction

A41.2 The Database CHEMSAFE®

A41.3 Content of CHEMSAFE®

A41.4 Classifying Hazardous Substances and Dangerous Goods Using CHEMSAFE®

A41.5 Access to CHEMSAFE®

A41.6 Summary


Loss Prevention Bulletin (Institution of Chemical Engineers)



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