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Intro Natural/Man-Made Disasters

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Introduction to Natural and Man-Made
Disasters and Their Effects on Buildings, by
Roxanna McDonald. 2003, 240 pages. 60%
OFF SALE!
Qty:
DR716
$23.75
INTRODUCTION TO NATURAL AND MAN-MADE DISASTERS AND THEIR
EFFECTS ON
BUILDINGS
by Roxanna McDonald

- Gain comprehensive understanding of disaster types and their effects on
buildings
- International case studies with clear technical information provide practical
advice
for
disaster prevention and rebuilding
- Looks at the effects of natural and man-made disasters, including terrorist
attacks

- - - - - - - -

This is a comprehensive guide to all types of natural and man made disasters and
their
effect on buildings. It gives overall guidance and a basic technical understanding of
prevention, mitigation and management of disaster, and outlines a checklist of
preventive
design elements for each situation.

Every category is illustrated with a case study which pin points the essential
information that
is crucial to architects and engineers in designing buildings with disaster
prevention in mind.

The aim of the book is to give a clear understanding of the nature of events and
problems,
and to enable readers to respond with knowledge to the unique demands placed on
their
designs.

A special emphasis is also placed on re-building as an opportunity to start again.
For the
specialists this is a process of constant learning and improving techniques in the
light of
events past.

- - - - - - - -

CONTENTS

Contents
Foreword
Introduction
Acknowledgements

1 . INTRODUCTION
Definition
Disasters and buildings
What is a disaster?
Disaster impact
Disaster characteristics
Disaster response
Preparedness
Mitigation
Management
Loss assessment
Strategy trends
Human and infrastructure vulnerability
Environmental degradation
Growing poverty in developing countries

PART I NATURAL DISASTERS

2. EARTHQUAKES
What happens during an earthquake
Tectonic plates
Earthquake characteristics
Earthquake measurement
Geographic and historic evolution: statistics
Earthquake prediction
Effect of earthquakes
Effect of earthquakes and seismic design principles
Direct effects
Indirect or consequential effects
Seismic design principles
Rehabilitation of old structures
New ideas, research, and recent developments for seismic-resistant construction
Case study: Vrancea, Romania General
The effect of 4 March 1977 earthquake on structures
The effect of 4 March 1977 earthquake on Romanian historic buildings
Romanian consolidation techniques, anti-seismic design, and legislation
Disaster mitigation

3. VOLCANOES
What are volcanoes and how they erupt
Volcano types
Statistics
Effects of volcanic eruptions

4. FLOODING
How does flooding occur
Causes and effects of flooding
Causes of flooding
Effects of floods
Elements of design
Individual properties
General approach
Case study - Thames barrier
Case study - The Loire river, France
Case study - Reignac sur Indre
5. WEATHER CONDITIONS
Storm
What is a storm and how it occurs
Wind effects on buildings
Case study - The Storms of 1987 and 2000 in the UK
Hurricane and tornado
What is a hurricane and how it occurs
Case study - Hurricane Andrew
What is a tornado
Lightning
What is lightning and how it occurs
Effects of lightning on buildings
Case study - Reconstruction of church spire St Quentin-sur-Indrois,
France
Extreme temperatures
Temperature records - extreme cold
Temperature records - extreme heat
General design features
Effect of extreme temperatures on buildings
Case study - Anchorage Performing Arts Center roof repair
New materials
Mass movement
What is mass movement and how it occurs
Types of mass movement and slope failure
Case study - The Dalles Middle School
Case study - Holbeck Hotel

PART 2 MAN-MADE DISASTERS

6. CONFLICT
Types of conflict
Conflict issues types
Methods of resolving conflict issues
Effect of conflict and terrorist attack on buildings
Types of damage
Design considerations
Case studies
Northern Ireland
Central University Library, Bucharest, Romania
World Trade Centre collapse

7. Fire
How does fire occur
Types fire
Fire disasters affecting wildland and forests
Fire disasters affecting humans
Monitoring and prevention strategy
Case study - Windsor Castle

8. DISASTERS RESULTING FROM HUMAN ACTIVITIES
Classification and impact
Technological advances
Excessive exploitation of natural resources and inappropriate land
development
and
building Contamination of the food chain and environment
Impact
Technological production
Manufacture and use of harmful products
Harmful by-products and/or processes
Case study - Chernobyl, Ukraine
Pollution
Excessive exploitation of natural resources and inappropriate land development
Inappropriate land development and building Contamination of the food
chain
and
environment
Case study - The cyanide spill at Baia Mare, Romania

9. HISTORIC BUILDINGS DESTRUCTION
General issues
Vulnerability
Specific type of damage
Vandalism and neglect
Case study - Eltham Orangery
Development demolition
Case study -'THE HOUSE OF THE PEOPLE', Bucharest, Romania
Historic buildings protection in disaster conditions
Preparedness
Mitigation
Management

APPENDICES
Emergency action checklist and fact sheets
Earthquake emergency checklist
Flood emergency checklist
Before
During a flood watch
During a flood
During an evacuation
After
Inspecting utilities in a damaged home
Fact sheet: hurricanes and tornadoes
Before
During a hurricane watch
During a hurricane warning
After
During
After
Inspecting utilities in a damaged home
Mitigation
Fact sheet: extreme heat
Before
During
During a drought
Heat disorders
Fact sheet: landslides and mudflows
Before
During
After
Mitigation
Fact sheet: terrorism
Before
During
After
Wildfire emergency checklist
Nuclear accident mitigation

CONTRIBUTORS
Prof Ing. Alexandru Cismigiu
Bertrand Penneron
Miro Group
Jonathan P. Kumin, AIA
Christine Theodoropoulos, Anne Deutsch, Josh Glavin, and Boora Architects, Inc.
Rena
Pitsilli-Graham, Freeman Historic Properties, Caroe & Partners

INFORMATION SOURCES
Disaster websites
Earthquake websites and organizations
Weather information and organizations websites
Fire monitoring and information websites

Bibliography
Glossary
Index

- - - - - - - -

EXCERPT FROM THE INTRODUCTION

“We have all suffered from minor disasters, such as breaking a beautiful vase - or
possibly a
major disaster such as a motor accident, but this book deals with a wide variety of
natural
and man-made disasters. We don't like to think of disasters, hoping that they won't
happen in
our lifetime. This book is, however, a useful reminder. It shows the incredibly large
range of
possible disasters.

“Curiously, floods are the most damaging, and with ‘greenhouse warming,’ these
are likely to
increase. The most awful scenario that I can imagine is if either the Aswan High
Dam or the
Yangtze Dam were to break, and both are in seismic regions. If this disaster were
to happen,
would it be ‘natural’ or ‘man-made’ - or both? The new 100-year flood maps issued
by the
Environment Agency in the UK are not particularly accurate, and cause insurance
problems
for householders. It is worth a house purchaser's while to assess the risk from
flood, soil
subsidence and settlements.

“Earthquakes immediately come to mind as the most lethal, because their effect is
almost
instantaneous, whereas one should get some warning of flood. People living in
seismic
zones can do a great deal to mitigate the next earthquake, but are reluctant to do
this,
because they hope it won't happen in their lifetime. The trouble is that although
earthquakes
may be probable, the exact timing of their arrival cannot yet be predicted. House
owners can
do a good deal to mitigate damage by good maintenance of their property, and
adding
strength to possible weak points. Studies after earthquake shows weaknesses in
traditional
construction, which should be rectified. A great deal can be done to protect the
infrastructure
of services, and to plan ahead of a possible earthquake. After earthquakes, delays
in
protecting buildings from the weather, and repairing damaged buildings, increase
the cost of
repairs and cause unnecessary hardship.

“Unsurprisingly, Fire causes greatest loss of life in North America, because of the
use of
softwood in domestic buildings. Fire is something we must all guard against, and
the causes
are common. Unattended cooking, cigarettes and arson are frequent causes of fire.
Historic
buildings are often subject to arson, and their security needs special care.

“Whereas most disasters are relatively local some, such as the Chernobyl atomic
meltdown
or the release of cyanide into a tributary of the Danube can affect many countries.
Wild-fire
can also extend over vast areas, and severe storms can wreak widespread havoc
to
buildings, trees and communications.

“This book ranges over the whole spectrum of disasters, ending with Appendices
giving
emergency action checklists and fact sheets for earthquakes, floods, hurricanes
and
tornadoes, extreme heat, landslides and mudflows, terrorism, wildfire emergencies,
and
nuclear accident mitigation. Wars are man-made disasters, made even worse by
ethnic
cleansing as in the former Yugoslavia, and collateral damage as in Afghanistan.

“The author has had first hand experience with buildings affected by natural and
man made
disasters. She stresses the effect of good design and planning can have in limiting
the
impact of disasters on the built environment. Legislation for good standards of
construction
reduces vulnerability only if implemented.

“National Governments, the United Nations Agencies and nongovernmental
organisations
face the urgent need to find solutions to the escalating threat of macro disasters to
mankind.
Unfortunately, they meet the reluctance of human nature to face potential
disasters.

“The author defines the purpose of her book - `to make a small step towards
providing a
general understanding of the principal types of disaster, and in particular, how they
can affect
buildings. By understanding how these natural and man-made events take place,
how they
evolve, and how they affect us, we stand a better chance to build and live safely in
stronger
communities resilient to disaster.' I believe the author has succeeded.”

- B. M. Feilden, May 2003

- - - - - - - -

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

“ROXANNA MCDONALD, Architect RIBA, AA Dip Cons Grande Bretagne, DAA/AL
France,
Practising architect working in the UK, France and Eastern Europe.”

“Born and brought up in Romania, trained as an architect at Ion Mincu Institute of
Architecture
in Bucharest. Graduated from Architectural Association School in London and
postgraduate
diploma in building conservation. Own architectural practice in the UK from
1983-92, mainly
carrying out conservation and restoration work. Registered with Ordre des
Architectes
Francais in Paris in 1992 and restored and converted historic buildings in France.
Extensive
work in Eastern Europe including development of Romanian Electrical Energy
Ministry
network of standardised buildings for power stations. From 1998 has been
architectural
consultant for a leading British charity, working to rebuild childcare infrastructure in
Eastern
Europe.”

- - - - - - - -
2003, 240 pages. Order #DR716
- - - - - - - -
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